Biochips

One platform – exceptional information content

DNA-Encoded Addressing
switchSENSE® allows for the parallel functionalization of all electrodes within a single flow channel by hybridization of specifically designed sequences with negligible cross-reactivity. Encode up to six different capture molecules with dedicated complementary nanolever sequences using standard kits, and load them onto the chip in a single step.

Straightforward Functionalization
Ligands are immobilized easily onto a switchSENSE® biochip: Standard coupling kits with, for instance, amino- or thiol-reactive linkers are available for the preparation of DNA-ligand conjugates, allowing for repeated functionalization of the chip via automated DNA hybridization.

Less is More
When it comes to sensor performance, a low number of capture molecules means higher sensitivity and better control over binding stoichiometry. switchSENSE® features microelectrodes which are only 120 μm in diameter, and enables the user to adjust the distance between capture molecules. Through a proprietary desorption method, the density of molecules on the detection spot can be tuned for optimal assay conditions.

Easy Regeneration
The switchSENSE® biochip is functionalized by DNA–DNA hybridization. While being a reliable method to “zip” capture molecules onto the chip, they can be removed as easily by splitting the DNA duplex using an automated routine. No need to establish unknown regeneration conditions, no need to worry about the activity of capture molecules.

Biochip Design

The switchSENSE® biochip provides 4 flow channels, each with 6 microelectrodes in series. One switchSENSE® sensor spot (≈0.01 mm2) is populated with nanolevers either of one or two populations at a density of around one million nanolevers per spot.

Experimental Cycle

An switchSENSE® experiment is straight forward and easy to perform. First you select a biochip according to the objectives of the experiment, second you functionalize the nanolever with a standard coupling kit and third you start the measurement.

experiementalcycle-2

Selection of Biochip

Please follow the 4-step guide to choose a proper biochip for your experiment.

Type of Biochip

switchSENSE® experiments are performed on a multi-electrode biochip. The biochip features 20 microelectrodes, arranged in 4 separate flow channels that are integrated on-chip for maintenance-free operation. The flow channels are integrated on-chip for maintenance-free operation. The microelectrode surfaces are functionalized with electrically switchable DNA nanolevers and are ready-to-use. We provide a variety of biochips suitable for different experiments

Multi-purpose Biochips (MPC) for Binding Kinetics I Binding Affinity I Protein Diameter I Conformational Change I Melting & Thermodynamics I Multimers & Aggregation
Enzymatic Biochips for Nuclease & Polymerase Activity
Bifunctional Biochips for Bispecific Binders & Avidity

Length of Nanolever

We offer the multi-purpose-chip (MPC) in two different nanolever lengths: 48 basepairs (16 nm) and 96 basepairs (32 nm). For target complexes below 100 kDa we recommend the MPC with 48 basepairs: MPC-48. For larger complexes (>100 kDa) we recommend the MPC-96 chip with 96 base pairs. On both types the 5′ end is attached to the surface and the 3’end carries the fluorophore.

48 bases (16 nm)

MPC-48-

96 bases (32 nm)

MPC-96-

Length of Nanolever

To characterize DNA binding enzymes, which need a free 3’-end e.g. polymerases, you can choose between two different DNA/template lengths. For standard applications we recommend the ENZ-54 biochip. For improved signal to noise ratio and high-end experiments choose the ENZ-80 biochip.
Please note: On these biochips the 3`-end is attached to surface & 5`-end carries the fluorophore.

Both biochip layouts come with a 36mer primer. The 54mer biochip exhibits 18 bases as template while the 80mer biochip has 44 bases.

enz-54

ENZ-54-

enz-80

ENZ-80

Length of Nanolever

For bispecific binders we offer two different ligand distances on one DNA strand: 7 nm and 14 nm; two (different) ligands can be separated 7 nm or 14 nm depending on the structure of the analyte.
bif-7nm-1

BIF-96-

bif-14nm-1

BIF-96-

Layout of Biochip

The number of different DNA-tether sequences can be chosen according to the experimental requirements. switchSENSE® sensor spots (≈0.01 mm2 ) are populated with nanolevers at a density of around one million nanolevers per spot.

DRX2
DRXred-1
6 single sequence (B) spots (referencing by consecutive experiments)
With 6 single sequence spots, the electrode functionalization features replicates in favor of better measurement statistics.
MPC-48-1-R1-
MPC-96-1-R1-
DRXred-2
2 reference (A) & 4 sample (B) spots (end-point referencing in same channel)
The biochip design presenting 2 reference sequence and 4 sample sequence spots enables to measure the reference in the same flow channel.
MPC-48-2-R1-
MPC-96-2-R1-
DRX2-2
6 double (A,B) spots (real-time on-spot referencing or sophisticated setups)
On DRX2 biochips, a mixture of two nanolever populations (red & green fluorophors) reside on the same sensor spot. Use one nanolever as the target and the other as the control for absolute data confidence. Of course one can use this set-up also to investigate more complex and challenging issues (e.g. interlinking assays, bispecifics: affinity/avidity,…).

MPC2-48-2-G1R1-

MPC2-96-2-G1R1-

DRXred
DRXred-1
6 single sequence (B) spots (referencing by consecutive experiments)
With 6 single sequence spots, the electrode functionalization features replicates in favor of better measurement statistics.
MPC-48-1-R1-
MPC-96-1-R1-
DRXred-2
2 reference (A) & 4 sample (B) spots (end-point referencing in same channel)
The biochip design presenting 2 reference sequence and 4 sample sequence spots enables to measure the reference in the same flow channel.
MPC-48-2-R1-
MPC-96-2-R1-
DRXyellow
DRXyellow-1
6 single sequence (B) spots (referencing by consecutive experiments)
With 6 single sequence spots, the electrode functionalization features replicates in favor of better measurement statistics.
MPC-48-1-Y1-
MPC-96-1-Y1-
DRXyellow-2
2 reference (A) & 4 sample (B) spots (end-point referencing in same channel)
The biochip design presenting 2 reference sequence and 4 sample sequence spots enables to measure the reference in the same flow channel.
MPC-48-2-Y1-
MPC-96-2-Y1-

Layout of Biochip

The number of flow channels on the chip as well as the number of different DNA-tether sequences can be chosen according to the experimental requirements. If only few interactions need to be investigated, the electrode functionalization can feature replicates in favor of better measurement statistics. If a large number of diverse interactions are to be investigated simultaneously, the chip can be configured for maximal parallelization.
DRX2

6 single sequence (B) spots (referencing by consecutive experiments)
With 6 single sequence spots, the electrode functionalization features replicates in favor of better measurement statistics.
ENZ-54-1-R1
ENZ-80-1-R1
DRXred

6 single sequence (B) spots (referencing by consecutive experiments)
With 6 single sequence spots, the electrode functionalization features replicates in favor of better measurement statistics.
ENZ-54-1-R1
ENZ-80-1-R1
DRXyellow

6 single sequence (B) spots (referencing by consecutive experiments)
With 6 single sequence spots, the electrode functionalization features replicates in favor of better measurement statistics.
ENZ-54-1-Y1
ENZ-80-1-Y1

Layout of Biochip

The number of flow channels on the chip as well as the number of different DNA-tether sequences can be chosen according to the experimental requirements. If only few interactions need to be investigated, the electrode functionalization can feature replicates in favor of better measurement statistics. If a large number of diverse interactions are to be investigated simultaneously, the chip can be configured for maximal parallelization.
DRX2
DRXred-2
2 reference (A) & 4 sample (B) spots (end-point referencing in same channel)
The biochip design presenting 2 reference sequence and 4 sample sequence spots enables to measure the reference in the same flow channel.
BIF-96-2-R1-

DRX2-2-300x48

6 double (A,B) spots (real-time on-spot referencing or sophisticated setups)
On DRX2 biochips, a mixture of two nanolever populations (red & green fluorophors) reside on the same sensor spot. Use one nanolever as the target and the other as the control for absolute data confidence. Of course one can use this set-up also to investigate more complex and challenging issues (e.g. interlinking assays, bispecifics: affinity/avidity,…).

BIF2-96-2-G1R1-

DRXred

2 reference sequence (A) & 4 probe sequence (B) spots

DRXred-2

2 reference (A) & 4 sample (B) spots (end-point referencing in same channel)
The biochip design presenting 2 reference sequence and 4 sample sequence spots enables to measure the reference in the same flow channel.
BIF-96-2-R1-
DRXyellow

2 reference sequence (A) & 4 probe sequence (B) spots

DRXyellow-2

2 reference (A) & 4 sample (B) spots (end-point referencing in same channel)
The biochip design presenting 2 reference sequence and 4 sample sequence spots enables to measure the reference in the same flow channel.
BIF-96-2-Y1-

Quality of Biochip

Standard Grade

Standard grade chips are batch tested which means one out of a batch undergoes a comprehensive quality control – proper switching dynamics, calibration (voltage-response of the DNA layer) and fluorescence levels. In addition each biochip is tested for proper fluorescence levels on each electrode. Due to the production process not all detection spots fulfill our high quality standards. Each standard grade biochip is certified as having 20 or more active detection spots.
We recommend standard grade biochips for testing new assays and to gain first results.

MPC-48-1-R1-S
MPC-96-1-R1-S
MPC-48-1-Y1-S
MPC-96-1-Y1-S
MPC-48-2-R1-S
MPC-96-2-R1-S
MPC-48-2-Y1-S
MPC-96-2-Y1-S

MPC2-48-2-G1R1-S

MPC2-96-2-G1R1-S

Performance Grade

Performance grade chips undergo a comprehensive quality control of every single detection spot. Each spot is checked for proper switching dynamics, calibration (voltage-response of the DNA layer) and fluorescence levels. Furthermore, each of the four flow channels is regenerated and the hybridization kinetics and efficiencies are recorded in a standardized environment (temperature, buffers, DNA concentration). Due to the production process not all detection spots fulfill our high quality standards. Each performance grade biochip is certified as having 20 or more active detection spots.
We recommend performance grade biochips for cutting edge science, including comparative studies of biomolecules, size analysis, conformational changes, QC-assays,…

MPC-48-1-R1-P
MPC-96-1-R1-P
MPC-48-1-Y1-P
MPC-96-1-Y1-P
MPC-48-2-R1-P

MPC-96-2-R1-P

MPC-48-2-Y1-P
MPC-96-2-Y1-P

MPC2-48-2-G1R1-P

MPC2-96-2-G1R1-P

Quality of Biochip

Standard Grade

Standard grade chips are tested for proper fluorescent levels on each spot. Further these chips get batch tested for proper switching dynamics, calibration (voltage-response of the DNA layer) and fluorescence levels hybridization. In this process also each of the four flow channels is regenerated and the hybridization kinetics and efficiencies are recorded in a standardized environment (temperature, buffers, DNA concentration).

ENZ-54-1-R1-S
ENZ-80-1-R1-S
ENZ-54-1-Y1-S
ENZ-80-1-Y1-S

Performance Grade

Performance grade chips undergo a comprehensive quality control of every single detection spot. Each spot is checked for proper switching dynamics, calibration (voltage-response of the DNA layer) and fluorescence levels. Furthermore, each of the four flow channels is regenerated and the hybridization kinetics and efficiencies are recorded in a standardized environment (temperature, buffers, DNA concentration). Every performance grade biochip comes with a detailed quality report.

We recommend performance grade biochips for cutting edge science (e.g. comparative studies of biomolecules, size analysis, conformational changes, QC-assays,…).

ENZ-54-1-R1-P
ENZ-80-1-R1-P
ENZ-54-1-Y1-P
ENZ-80-1-Y1-P

Quality of Biochip

Standard Grade

Standard grade chips are tested for proper fluorescent levels on each spot. Further these chips get batch tested for proper switching dynamics, calibration (voltage-response of the DNA layer) and fluorescence levels hybridization. In this process also each of the four flow channels is regenerated and the hybridization kinetics and efficiencies are recorded in a standardized environment (temperature, buffers, DNA concentration).

BIF-96-2-R1-S
either functionalization kit for 7 nm distance CK-NH2-5-B96
or functionalization kit for 14 nm distance CK-NH2-6-B96

BIF-96-2-Y1-S
either functionalization kit for 7 nm distance CK-NH2-5-B96
or functionalization kit for 14 nm distance CK-NH2-6-B96

BIF2-96-2-G1R1-S
either functionalization kit for 7 nm distance CK-NH2-5-B96
or functionalization kit for 14 nm distance CK-NH2-6-B96

Performance Grade

Performance grade chips undergo a comprehensive quality control of every single detection spot. Each spot is checked for proper switching dynamics, calibration (voltage-response of the DNA layer) and fluorescence levels. Furthermore, each of the four flow channels is regenerated and the hybridization kinetics and efficiencies are recorded in a standardized environment (temperature, buffers, DNA concentration). Every performance grade biochip comes with a detailed quality report.

We recommend performance grade biochips for cutting edge science (e.g. comparative studies of biomolecules, size analysis, conformational changes, QC-assays,…).

BIF-96-2-R1-P
either functionalization kit for 7 nm distance CK-NH2-5-B96
or functionalization kit for 14 nm distance CK-NH2-6-B96

BIF-96-2-Y1-P
either functionalization kit for 7 nm distance CK-NH2-5-B96
or functionalization kit for 14 nm distance CK-NH2-6-B96

BIF2-96-2-G1R1-P
either functionalization kit for 7 nm distance CK-NH2-5-B96
or functionalization kit for 14 nm distance CK-NH2-6-B96

Selected Chip ID

MPC-48-1-R1-S (Download PDF)

MPC-48-1-R1-P (Download PDF)

MPC-48-1-Y1-S (Download PDF)

MPC-48-1-Y1-P (Download PDF)

MPC-48-2-R1-S (Download PDF)

MPC-48-2-R1-P (Download PDF)

MPC-48-2-Y1-S (Download PDF)

MPC-48-2-Y1-P (Download PDF)

MPC2-48-2-G1R1-S (Download PDF)

MPC2-48-2-G1R1-P (Download PDF)

MPC-96-1-R1-S (Download PDF)

MPC-96-1-R1-P (Download PDF)

MPC-96-1-Y1-S (Download PDF)

MPC-96-1-Y1-P (Download PDF)

MPC-96-2-R1-S (Download PDF)

MPC-96-2-R1-P (Download PDF)

MPC-96-2-Y1-S (Download PDF)

MPC-96-2-Y1-P (Download PDF)

MPC2-96-2-G1R1-S (Download PDF)

MPC2-96-2-G1R1-P (Download PDF)

ENZ-54-1-R1-S (Download PDF)

ENZ-54-1-R1-P (Download PDF)

ENZ-54-1-Y1-S (Download PDF)

ENZ-54-1-Y1-P (Download PDF)

ENZ-80-1-R1-S (Download PDF)

ENZ-80-1-R1-P (Download PDF)

ENZ-80-1-Y1-S (Download PDF)

ENZ-80-1-Y1-P (Download PDF)

BIF-96-2-R1-S (Download PDF)

BIF-96-2-R1-P (Download PDF)

 

BIF-96-2-Y1-S (Download PDF)

BIF-96-2-Y1-P (Download PDF)

BIF2-96-2-G1R1-S (Download PDF)

BIF2-96-2-G1R1-P (Download PDF)

Nomenclature of Biochips

The nomenclature of our biochips complies with the following structure:

nomenklatur-2

Overview of Biochips

Multi-purpose Chips

Multi-purpose chips are versatile means to analyze protein-protein, protein-small molecule, DNA/RNA-protein, and DNA/RNA-small molecule interactions.

By exchanging the standard complementary DNA strand, the chip design enables users to build a near infinite range of molecular structures.

Choose from two different nanolevers: standard DNA levers comprise 48 bp and are 16 nm long, or use 96 bp (32 nm) levers for large analytes.

Multi-purpose chips are available in two quality grades: Standard Grade and Performance Grade

Email sales@dynamic-biosensors.com for ordering and product information.

Order No.Product description
MPC-48-1-R1-PMulti-purpose Biochip; nanolevers with 48 bases; 6 single sequence spots (B); red fluorophore; performance grade; suitable for DRXred and DRX2
MPC-48-1-R1-SMulti-purpose Biochip; nanolevers with 48 bases; 6 single sequence spots (B); red fluorophore; standard grade; suitable for DRXred and DRX2
MPC-48-1-Y1-PMulti-purpose Biochip; nanolevers with 48 bases; 6 single sequence spots (B); yellow fluorophore; performance grade; suitable for DRXyellow
MPC-48-1-Y1-SMulti-purpose Biochip; nanolevers with 48 bases; 6 single sequence spots (B); yellow fluorophore; standard grade; suitable for DRXyellow
MPC-48-2-R1-PMulti-purpose Biochip; nanolevers with 48 bases; 2 reference sequence spots (A) & 4 probe sequence spots (B); red fluorophore; performance grade; suitable for DRXred and DRX2
MPC-48-2-R1-SMulti-purpose Biochip; nanolevers with 48 bases; 2 reference sequence spots (A) & 4 probe sequence spots (B); red fluorophore; standard grade; suitable for DRXred and DRX2
MPC-48-2-Y1-PMulti-purpose Biochip; nanolevers with 48 bases; 2 reference sequence spots (A) & 4 probe sequence spots (B); yellow fluorophore; performance grade; suitable for DRXyellow
MPC-48-2-Y1-SMulti-purpose Biochip; nanolevers with 48 bases; 2 reference sequence spots (A) & 4 probe sequence spots (B); yellow fluorophore; standard grade; suitable for DRXyellow
MPC-96-1-R1-PMulti-purpose Biochip; nanolevers with 96 bases; 6 single sequence spots (B); red fluorophore; performance grade; suitable for DRXred and DRX2
MPC-96-1-R1-SMulti-purpose Biochip; nanolevers with 96 bases; 6 single sequence spots (B); red fluorophore; standard grade; suitable for DRXred and DRX2
MPC-96-1-Y1-PMulti-purpose Biochip; nanolevers with 96 bases; 6 single sequence spots (B); yellow fluorophore; performance grade; suitable for DRXyellow
MPC-96-1-Y1-SMulti-purpose Biochip; nanolevers with 96 bases; 6 single sequence spots (B); yellow fluorophore; standard grade; suitable for DRXyellow
MPC-96-2-R1-PMulti-purpose Biochip; nanolevers with 96 bases; 2 reference sequence spots (A) & 4 probe sequence spots (B); red fluorophore; performance grade; suitable for DRXred and DRX2
MPC-96-2-R1-SMulti-purpose Biochip; nanolevers with 96 bases; 2 reference sequence spots (A) & 4 probe sequence spots (B); red fluorophore; standard grade; suitable for DRXred and DRX2
MPC-96-2-Y1-PMulti-purpose Biochip; nanolevers with 96 bases; 2 reference sequence spots (A) & 4 probe sequence spots (B); yellow fluorophore; performance grade; suitable for DRXyellow
MPC-96-2-Y1-SMulti-purpose Biochip; nanolevers with 96 bases; 2 reference sequence spots (A) & 4 probe sequence spots (B); yellow fluorophore; standard grade; suitable for DRXyellow
MPC2-48-2-G1R1-PMulti-purpose Biochip; nanolevers with 48 bases; 6 double-sequence spots (A,B) for on-spot referencing or double probe measurements; green and red fluorophores; performance grade; suitable for DRXred and DRX2
MPC2-48-2-G1R1-SMulti-purpose Biochip; nanolevers with 48 bases; 6 double-sequence spots (A,B) for on-spot referencing or double probe measurements; green and red fluorophores; standard grade; suitable for DRXred and DRX2
MPC2-96-2-G1R1-PMulti-purpose Biochip; nanolevers with 96 bases; 6 double-sequence spots (A,B) for on-spot referencing or double probe measurements; green and red fluorophores; performance grade; suitable for DRXred and DRX2
MPC2-96-2-G1R1-SMulti-purpose Biochip; nanolevers with 96 bases; 6 double-sequence spots (A,B) for on-spot referencing or double probe measurements; green and red fluorophores; standard grade; suitable for DRXred and DRX2

Enzyme Chips

Our unique enzyme chips are designed to analyze the activity of polymerases and nucleases. Elongation rates, exo- or endonuclease activity, hot start properties, and many other parameters can be analyzed cost efficient and non-hazardous in fully automated, radiation free, and rapid protocols.

Label-free polymerase assays are ready-to-use. The nanolever structure consists of a double stranded primer part and a single stranded template. Two versions with different lengths are available: P36T54 and P36T80. The kit includes unlabeled complementary DNA.

Email sales@dynamic-biosensors.com for ordering and product information.

Order No.Product description
ENZ-54-1-R1-PEnzyme Biochip; nanolevers with 54 bases; 6 single sequence spots (B); red fluorophore; performance grade; suitable for DRXred and DRX2
ENZ-54-1-R1-SEnzyme Biochip; nanolevers with 54 bases; 6 single sequence spots (B); red fluorophore; standard grade; suitable for DRXred and DRX2
ENZ-54-1-Y1-PEnzyme Biochip; nanolevers with 54 bases; 6 single sequence spots (B); yellow fluorophore; performance grade; suitable for DRXyellow
ENZ-54-1-Y1-SEnzyme Biochip; nanolevers with 54 bases; 6 single sequence spots (B); yellow fluorophore; standard grade; suitable for DRXyellow
ENZ-80-1-R1-PEnzyme Biochip; nanolevers with 80 bases; 6 single sequence spots (B); red fluorophore; performance grade; suitable for DRXred and DRX2
ENZ-80-1-R1-SEnzyme Biochip; nanolevers with 80 bases; 6 single sequence spots (B); red fluorophore; standard grade; suitable for DRXred and DRX2
ENZ-80-1-Y1-PEnzyme Biochip; nanolevers with 80 bases; 6 single sequence spots (B); yellow fluorophore; performance grade; suitable for DRXyellow
ENZ-80-1-Y1-SEnzyme Biochip; nanolevers with 80 bases; 6 single sequence spots (B); yellow fluorophore; standard grade; suitable for DRXyellow

Bi-functional Chips

Traditional methods used in the study of bi-functional antibodies can often fail to discriminate between complex binding modes (monovalent versus bivalent or bispecific). The new switchSENSE® Bi-functional Chips offer a very flexible and powerful platform for both research and quality control in production.

Multiple binding events can be studied either through the use of bi-functional nanolevers that present two different ligands at the same time or through a heterogeneous design where two nanolevers species are immobilized in direct proximity.

Email sales@dynamic-biosensors.com for ordering and product information.

Order No.Product description
BIF-96-2-R1-PBi-functional Biochip for two antigens (distance 7 nm or 14 nm); nanolevers with 96 bases; 2 reference sequence spots (A) & 4 probe sequence spots (B); red fluorophore; performance grade; suitable for DRXred and DRX2
BIF-96-2-R1-SBi-functional Biochip for two antigens (distance 7 nm or 14 nm); nanolevers with 96 bases; 2 reference sequence spots (A) & 4 probe sequence spots (B); red fluorophore; standard grade; suitable for DRXred and DRX2
BIF-96-2-Y1-PBi-functional Biochip for two antigens (distance 7 nm or 14 nm); nanolevers with 96 bases; 2 reference sequence spots (A) & 4 probe sequence spots (B); yellow fluorophore; performance grade; suitable for DRXyellow
BIF-96-2-Y1-SBi-functional Biochip for two antigens (distance 7 nm or 14 nm); nanolevers with 96 bases; 2 reference sequence spots (A) & 4 probe sequence spots (B); yellow fluorophore; standard grade; suitable for DRXyellow
BIF2-96-2-G1R1-PBi-functional Biochip for two antigens (distance 7 nm or 14 nm); nanolevers with 96 bases; 6 double-sequence spots (A,B) for on-spot referencing or double probe measurements; green and red fluorophores; performance grade; suitable for DRXred and DRX2
BIF2-96-2-G1R1-SBi-functional Biochip for two antigens (distance 7 nm or 14 nm); nanolevers with 96 bases; 6 double-sequence spots (A,B) for on-spot referencing or double probe measurements; green and red fluorophores; standard grade; suitable for DRXred and DRX2

Custom-made Chips

Special solutions for your research: we can also offer chips that are functionalized with DNA/RNA sequences and chemical modifications (labels, tags) according to your specific requirements. Design, material synthesis, chip production, and quality control usually takes only two to four weeks. Please contact us to discuss a tailor-made solution for your interaction challenge.

List of switchSENSE®-compatible Materials and Conditions

   
BuffersPBS, TRIS, HEPES, MOPS, MES,…pH 5 – pH 10
Salt concentrationMeasurement modes involving electrical actuation
fluorescence measurement modes
1 – 300 mM
0 – 3 M
TemperatureSteady state or temperature gradients up to 50°C/min 8 – 75°C
GlycerolStabilizer and viscous co-solvent0 – 70 wt%
EDTAScavenger for metal ions0 – 5 mM
DMSODissolves polar and non-polar compounds 0 – 5 % v/v
Tween® 20Non-ionic detergent/surfactant (0.05% typical)0 – 1 % v/v
Triton® X-100Non-ionic detergent/surfactant0 – 1 % v/v
Nonidet® P40Non-ionic detergent/surfactant0 – 1 % v/v
Tertigol® NP-40Non-ionic detergent/surfactant0 – 1 % v/v
DDMNon-ionic detergent for membrane proteins
(CMC ~ 0.15 mM)
0 – 20 mM
LipidsSphingolipids, phospholipids (e.g. sphingosine, POPC)0 – 100x CMC
UreaDenaturation agent (non-ionic)0 – 6 M
Guanidine ChlorideDenaturation agent (ionic)0 – 6 M
TCEPReducing agent0 – 1 mM
DTT, MCEReducing agents, use negative electrode potentials0 – 3 mM
Serum AlbuminHuman or bovine serum albumin (up to 0.5 mM)0 – serum conc.
SerumHuman serum0 – 50% (1:1)
Cell LysatesLysates, supernatants, …

Please download the switchSENSE®-compatibility sheet for more information.

Did’t find the information you were looking for? Please contact info@dynamic-biosensors.com.