For kinetic experiments, choosing the appropriate flow rate can be a crucial factor for determining the correct affinity. This can possibly lead to measurement artifacts that are caused by insufficient flow rates. During the association phase, a too slow flow rate can be the cause for mass transport limitation effects. On the other hand, during the dissociation phase an inadequate flow rate can result in re-binding effects. Both these effects should be avoided to obtain high quality kinetic data. Thus, the general rule is to work at a comparably high flow rates (e.g. > 100 µl/min) whenever the experimental circumstances allow. However, there are certain limitations to this, as sample and buffer amounts are often of limited availability.